The 42 Months, the Time(1), Times(2) and Half a Time(.5)=(3.5), and the 1260 years are the same time period. 3.5 years is 42 months and 42 months is 1260 days.
Dan. 7:25 23 “Thus he said: ‘The fourth beast will be a fourth kingdom on the earth, which will be different from all the other kingdoms and will devour the whole earth and tread it down and crush it. 24 As for the ten horns, out of this kingdom ten kings will arise; and another will arise after them, and he will be different from the previous ones and will subdue three kings. 25 He will speak out against the Most High and wear down the saints of the Highest One, and he will intend to make alterations in times and in law; and they will be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time.
Here we have another depiction of the Roman Empire picking up from Dan. 2. The Roman Empire has dominance over the saints for 3.5 years/42months/1260 days.
Rev. 11:1 Then there was given me a measuring rod like a staff; and someone said, “Get up and measure the temple of God and the altar, and those who worship in it. 2 Leave out the court which is outside the temple and do not measure it, for it has been given to the nations; and they will tread under foot the holy city for forty-two months. 3 And I will grant authority to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for twelve hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth.” 4 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.
Here we see the beginning of the 1260 days is when the nations tread underfoot the holy city. The two witnesses/two olive trees are said to be “the two anointed ones who are standing by the Lord of the whole earth.” Zech 4:14. Newton says,
“While the Gentiles tread the holy city under foot, God gives power to his two Witnesses, and they prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days clothed in sackcloth. They are called the two Olive-trees, with relation to the two Olive-trees, which in Zechary’s vision, chap. iv. stand on either side of the golden candlestick to supply the lamps with oil: and Olive-trees, according to the Apostle Paul, represent Churches, Rom. xi. They supply the lamps with oil, by maintaining teachers. They are also called the two candlesticks; which in this Prophecy signify Churches[Rev. 1:12-20], the seven Churches of Asia being represented by seven candlesticks. Five of these Churches were found faulty, and threatned if they did not repent; the other two were without fault, and so their candlesticks were fit to be placed in the second Temple. These were the Churches in Smyrna and Philadelphia. They were in a state of tribulation and persecution, and the only two of the seven in such a state: and so their candlesticks were fit to represent the Churches in affliction in the times of the second Temple, and the only two of the seven that were fit. The two Witnesses are not new Churches: they are the posterity of the primitive Church, the posterity of the two wings of the woman, and so are fitly represented by two of the primitive candlesticks. We may conceive therefore, that when the first Temple was destroyed, and a new one built for them who worship in the inward court, two of the seven candlesticks were placed in this new Temple…
These are the two Olive-trees, or Churches, which
supplied the lamps with oil, Zech. iv. These are the two
candlesticks, or Churches, standing before the God of the earth. Five of the seven Churches of Asia, those in prosperity, are found fault with, and exhorted to repent, and threatned to be removed out of their places, or spewed out of Christ’s mouth, or punished with the sword of
Christ’s mouth, except they repent: the other two, the Churches of
Smyrna and Philadelphia, which were under persecution, remain in a
state of persecution, to illuminate the second temple. When the primitive Church catholick, represented by the woman in heaven, apostatized, and became divided into two corrupt Churches, represented by the whore of Babylon and the two-horned Beast, the 144000 who were sealed out of all the twelve tribes, became the two Witnesses, in opposition to those two false Churches: and the name of two Witnesses once imposed, remains to the true Church of God in all times and places to the end of the Prophecy.”
Rev. 11 continues:
7 When they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up out of the abyss will make war with them, and overcome them and kill them.
Notice the word here is testimony not prophecy. Their prophecy ended in 1330 but their testimony lasted until the Reformation in the 16th century. The fact that the 1260 are elongated by the 1290 and then the 1335 in Dan 12, shows that 1330 was not the absolute end of their ministry.
8 And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which [f]mystically is called Sodom and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.
Notice the passage says mystically not literally. The great city has already been demonstrated to be the Church of Rome.
9 Those from the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations will look at their dead [g]bodies for three and a half days,
Thus, the two witnesses, those persecuted few who protested against Rome all through the previous ages, have now been silenced in the 5th Lateran Council:
5th Lateran Council, Session 2, 17 May 1512,
“Julius, bishop, servant of the servants of God, with the approval of the sacred council, for an everlasting record. We intend, with the help of the most High, to proceed with the holding of this sacred Lateran council which has now begun for the praise of God, the peace of the whole church, the union of the faithful the overthrow of heresies and schisms, the reform of morals, and the campaign against the dangerous enemies of the faith, so that the mouths of all schismatics and enemies of peace, those howling dogs, may be silenced and Christians may be able to keep themselves unstained from such pernicious and poisonous contagion.”
Session 9, May 5, 1514
“This our intense desire for this campaign against the evil and implacable enemies of the cross of Christ is indeed so implanted in our heart that we determined to continue and follow up the sacred Lateran council — which was summoned and begun by our predecessor of happy memory, Julius II, and interrupted by his death — for that special reason, as is clear from all the different sessions held by us in the same council. Thus, with the christian princes or their spokesmen assembled at the same council, and prelates from different parts of the world coming to it, once peace between these christian princes had been settled and (as is right) the noxious brambles of heresies had been first uprooted from the Lord’s field, then the things necessary for the campaign against the same enemies, and what concerns the glory and triumph of the orthodox faith, and various other matters, could be happily decided upon by the timely advice and agreement of all…
Trusting in the mercy of God and the authority of his blessed apostles Peter and Paul, we grant remission of one hundred days of imposed penances to those who, individually and in private, offer prayers to obtain the foregoing from God; seven times each day if they do it so often or, if fewer, as often as they shall do it; until the universal peace — which is receiving our constant attention -between princes and peoples at present in armed dispute has been established, and the campaign against the infidels has been decreed with our approval. We lay an obligation on our venerable brothers, primates, patriarchs, archbishops and bishops, to whom the present letter or copies of it, accurately printed either in Rome or elsewhere, shall come under official seals, to have it published with all possible speed in their provinces and dioceses, and to give firm instructions for its due execution.”
Session 12, March 16, 1517
“The emperor-elect Maximilian, our dear son in Christ, in the time of our said predecessor Julius, and king Louis of France, of happy memory, in our own time, as well as other kings and princes adhered to the Lateran council, lawfully assembled in the holy Spirit, to the greatest satisfaction of everyone. The quasi-council at Pisa, which had been summoned by certain persons without the necessary authority and had been condemned by the same Julius who preceded us, was treated by them as condemned in accordance with the decision of the said Julius. The schism which had begun to grow from this was ended (although it is c ear that so long as the situation continued, it brought very many injures to prelates and others of Christ’s faithful at various times, as well as to other general councils held until this time). There was peace for the whole church and a resulting union. The moral habits of churchmen as well as of secular and other persons were reformed, insofar as this seemed appropriate, and several matters concerning the true faith were defined. Several other matters, after being carefully examined and debated in the three committees of cardinals and prelates mentioned above, were considered with care and skill in the said council and a final decision was reached.”
E.B. Elliot states on the three and a half days.
“But does the chronology suit ? It was predicted that for three and a half days the Witnesses were to be looked on as dead : in other words, that there was to be the interval
of three and a half years between first recognition of their extinction by the assembled deputies from the states of Christendom, and their resuscitation. Was this the in-
terval between that memorable day of the ninth session of the Lateran Council, on which the Orator pronounced his paean of triumph over the extinction of heretics and schismatics, and the first and yet more memorable act of protestation by Luther? Let us calculate. The day of the 9th Session was, as we have seen. May 5, 1514; the day
of Luther’s posting up his Theses at Wittenberg (the well-known epoch of the Reformation) Oct. 31, 1517. Now from May 5, 1514 to May 5, 1517 are three years: and from May 5, 1517 to October 31 of the same year, 1517, the reckoning in days is as follows…in all 180, or half 360 days ; that is, just half a year.- So that the whole interval is precisely, to a day, three and a half years ; precisely, to a day, the period predicted in the Apocalyptic prophecy !”
and [h]will not permit their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb.
Burial was denied heretic Protestants:
New Advent, Christian Burial,
“Only baptized persons have a claim to Christian burial and the rites of the Church cannot lawfully be performed over those who are not baptized. Moreover no strict claim can be allowed in the case of those persons who have not lived in communion with the Church according to the maxim which comes down from the time of Pope Leo the Great (448) “quibus viventibus non communicavimus mortuis communicare non possumus” (i.e. we cannot hold communion in death with those who in life were not in communion with us). It has further been recognized as a principle that the last rites of the Church constitute a mark of respect which is not to be shown to those who in their lives have proved themselves unworthy of it. In this way various classes of persons are excluded from Christian burial — pagans, Jews, infidels, heretics, and their adherents (Rit. Rom., VI, c. ii) schismatics, apostates, and persons who have been excommunicated by name or placed under an interdict. If an excommunicated person be buried in a church or in a consecrated cemetery the place is thereby desecrated, and, wherever possible, the remains must be exhumed and buried elsewhere.”
Council of Constance 1414-18, Session 8 May 4 1415,
“Furthermore, a process was begun, on the authority or by decree of the Roman council, and at the command of the church and of the apostolic see, after a due interval of time, for the condemnation of the said Wyclif and his memory. Invitations and proclamations were issued summoning those who wished to defend him and his memory, if any still existed. However, nobody appeared who was willing to defend him or his memory. Witnesses were examined by commissaries appointed by the reigning lord pope John and by this sacred council, regarding the said Wyclif’s final impenitence and obstinacy. Legal proof was thus provided, in accordance with all due observances, as the order of law demands in a matter of this kind, regarding his impenitence and final obstinacy. This was proved by clear indications from legitimate witnesses. This holy synod, therefore, at the instance of the procurator-fiscal and since a decree was issued to the effect that sentence should be heard on this day, declares, defines and decrees that the said John Wyclif was a notorious and obstinate heretic who died in heresy, and it anathematises him and condemns his memory. It decrees and orders that his body and bones are to be exhumed, if they can be identified among the corpses of the faithful, and to be scattered far from a burial place of the church, in accordance with canonical and lawful sanctions.”
10 And those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate; and they will send gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth. 11 But after the three and a half days, the breath of life from God came into them, and they stood on their feet; and great fear fell upon those who were watching them. 12 And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them.
Thus, the Reformation was revived after the great diabolical work of the 5th Lateran Council, with the 95 Theses of Luther and then the Protestant Nations to ascend in power.
13 And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell
Thus, during the reign of Henry VIII, England would, under the influence of the Reformation break away from the Pope and the Holy Roman Empire to become a sovereign Nation.
and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven. 14
Thus, began the mighty Eighty Years War, or the War for Dutch Independence from the Holy Roman Empire, including the great Protestant vs Catholic, Thirty Years War, to become an independent sovereign nation.
12: 1 And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars: 2 And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered. 3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads. 4 And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born. Rev. 12: 5 And she gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron; and her child was caught up to God and to His throne. 6 Then the woman fled into the wilderness where she *had a place prepared by God, so that there she would be nourished for one thousand two hundred and sixty days.
The woman is clearly believing true Israelites who fled to the wilderness after the resurrection of Yeshua to be there 1260 days. Luke 23:27-31. Mary did not survive 1260 years after the destruction of Jerusalem. This confines the fulfillment of the fleeing to the wilderness to the first century, though to be symbolic of all true believers(Rev. 12:17) until the time of Wycliffe, the end of the 1260 days. This is further solidified by the fact that verse 5 her child is to rule all nations with a rod of iron which is clearly indicated of Yeshua in Rev. 19:15 and was caught up to Elohim’s throne, clearly indicating his Resurrection and ascension.
Also we see the red dragon, the devil-shatan, verse 9, disguised in the guise of the Roman Empire as we shall see in Revelation 13.
And the dragon does something very peculiar. He cats down stars to the earth, As we have already seen, the casting down of stars refers to political and/or religious powers falling in real life. So what powerful religious and/or political power was thrown down by the Roman Empire right before the ministry of the Messiah Yeshua? The mighty Druids! The most influential legal and religious powers of the Celtic people.
The suppression of the Druids by Rome began in the Gallic Wars from 58 – 50 B.C.
Pliny, Natural History, Book XXX,
“IV. Magic certainly found a home in the two Gallic provinces, and that down to living memory. For the principate of Tiberius Caesar[14 A.D. – 37 A.D.] did away with their Druids and this tribe of seers and medicine men. But why should I speak of these things when the craft has even crossed the Ocean and reached the empty voids of Nature? Even today Britain practises magic in awe, with such grand ritual that it might seem that she gave it to the Persians. So universal is the cult of magic throughout the world, although its nations disagree or are unknown to each other. It is beyond calculation how great is the debt owed to the Romans, who swept away the monstrous rites, in which to kill a man was the highest religious duty and for him to be eaten a passport to health.”
Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Claudius 25:5,
“5 He[Cladius – 54 A.D. ] utterly abolished the cruel and inhuman religion of the Druids among the Gauls, which under Augustus[27 B.C. – 14 A.D.] had merely been prohibited to Roman citizens;”
7 And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, 8 And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven. 9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. 10 And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.
The master Yeshua in the guise of Michael here, told us that at his earthly ministry the devil would be cast out:
John 12: 31 Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. 32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.
At his Resurrection the Master Yeshua was anointed King and Monarch of our world:
Rom 1:4 who was designated Son of Elohim with power, according to the Set-apart Spirit, by the resurrection from the dead: יהושע Messiah, the Master of us
This power was claimed by Yeshua when he said after his resurrection,
Mat 28:18 And יהושע came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth.
Peter continues this hopeful theme of victory,
1Pe 1:3 Blessed be the Elohim and Father of our Master יהושע Messiah, who according to His great compassion has caused us to be born again to a living expectation through the resurrection of יהושע Messiah from the dead
We read all throughout the New Testament that by the Resurrection of Yeshua, he conquered all the demonic powers and was anointed King over all.
1Co 15:20 But now Messiah has been raised from the dead, and has become the first-fruit of those having fallen asleep. 1Co 15:21 For since death is through a man, resurrection of the dead is also through a Man. Co 15:22 For as all die in Ad ̱ am, so also all shall be made alive in Messiah . 1Co 15:23 And each in his own order: Messiah the first-fruits, then those who are of Messiah at His coming, 1Co 15:24 then the end, when He delivers up the reign to Elohim the Father, when He has brought to naught all rule and all authority and power. 1Co 15:25 For He has to reign until He has put all enemies under His feet. 1Co 15:26 The last enemy to be brought to naught is death. 1Co 15:27 For “He has put all under His feet.” But when He says “all are put under Him,” it is clear that He who put all under Him is excepted. 1Co 15:28 And when all are made subject to Him, then the Son Himself shall also be subject to Him who put all under Him, in order that Elohim be all in all.
Col 2:13 And you, being dead in your trespasses1 and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He has made alive together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses, Footnote: 1Eph. 2:1. Col 2:14 having blotted out the certificate of debt against us – by the dogmas – which stood against us. And He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the stake. Col 2:15 Having stripped the principalities and the authorities, He made a public display of them, having prevailed over them in it.
Eph 4:7 But to each one of us favour was given according to the measure of the gift of Messiah.
Eph 4:8 That is why it says, “When He went up on high, He led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men.” Psalm 68:18
Heb 2:14 Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself similarly shared in the same, so that by means of His death He might destroy him having the power of death, that is, the devil, Heb 2:15 and deliver those who throughout life were held in slavery by fear of death.
11 And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death. 12 Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time. 13 And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man child.
Having been defeated by the Master Yeshua, Shatan now having his great powers as he did under the ancient Pagan Kingdoms, stripped from him, he acted in desperation to destroy the followers of Yeshua. This persecution would be shortly abated under Constantine but would continue under the coming Roman Papacy. This is the third woe, the devil who calls up the Roman Papacy, whose influence though greatly weakened is still very influential to this day!
Rev. 12: 13 And when the dragon saw that he was thrown down to the earth, he persecuted the woman who gave birth to the male child. 14 But the two wings of the great eagle were given to the woman, so that she could fly into the wilderness to her place, where she *was nourished for a time and times and half a time, from the presence of the serpent. 15 And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood. 16 And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth. 17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.
And thus with the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. and the flight of the Jews out of their ancient homeland, here we have the 1260 days referred to as the time, times and half a time. 70 A.D. to 1330 A.D.
Dan. 12:1 “Now at that time Michael, the great prince who stands guard over the sons of your people, will arise. And there will be a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time; and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book, will be rescued. 2 Many of those who sleep in the dust of the ground will awake, these to everlasting life, but the others to disgrace and everlasting contempt…
5 Then I, Daniel, looked and behold, two others were standing, one on this bank of the river and the other on that bank of the river. 6 And one said to the man dressed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, “How long will it be until the end of these wonders?” 7 I heard the man dressed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, as he raised his right hand and his left toward heaven, and swore by Him who lives forever that it would be for a time, times, and half a time; and as soon as they finish shattering the power of the holy people, all these events will be completed. 8 As for me, I heard but could not understand; so I said, “My lord, what will be the outcome of these events?” 9 He said, “Go your way, Daniel, for these words are concealed and sealed up until the end time. 10 Many will be purged, purified and refined, but the wicked will act wickedly; and none of the wicked will understand, but those who have insight will understand. 11 From the time that the regular sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days. 12 How blessed is he who keeps waiting and attains to the 1,335 days! 13 But as for you, go your way to the end; then you will enter into rest and rise again for your allotted portion at the end of the age.”
Here we have the great tribulation mentioned in Mat. 24:21, the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The resurrection mentioned is either the mysterious resurrection mentioned in Mat. 27:52 as survivors to the time of Jerusalem’s sacking, or a spiritual renewal of Israel as Dan. 12:2 states, and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book, will be rescued, and that the wonder of the Great tribulation for time, times and half a time. JP McCarter says,
“Daniel 12 describes it as lasting 1,290 years. The difference is 30 years. Now 30 years was the time from Christ’s birth to His public ministry, and it symbolizes the time of birth to public ministry in His prophets. If we add 1,260 years to 70 A.D., we get 1330 A.D. And 30 years later is 1360 A.D. So who was born in 1330 A.D. and began his public ministry in 1360 A.D.? John Wycliffe, the Morningstar of the Reformation. Daniel 12:12 goes on to speak of the blessing of those who will make it to 1,335 years, which is 1405 A.D. By 1405, the Reformation was firmly planted in the British Isles with the Lollards, and it had been planted in continental Europe with Huss. But just as in Israel’s history, there remained and remains a long saga even after coming out of the wilderness.”
The abomination of desolation is mentioned in Dan. 9:27 clearly referring to 70 A.D. as will be proved in a later article. Yeshua repeats the same in Matt. 24:15 as referring to the destruction of Jerusalem.
Now to the 13th Chapter of Revelation:
1 And the dragon stood on the sand of the seashore.
Then I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads, and on his horns were ten diadems, and on his heads were blasphemous names. 2 And the beast which I saw was like a leopard, and his feet were like those of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. And the dragon gave him his power and his throne and great authority.
Here we have the Roman Empire pagan beast. The Ten horns are the ten toes of Dan. 2 referring to the 10 divisions of the fallen Roman Empire. Verse 2 describes the beast with the same animals Daniel describes all the world empires with in Daniel 7:1-7. Thus, the seven heads refer to the great world empires of the past. As Nigel Lee states,
“Accordingly, the Head that was “wounded to death” at that time was the Roman Head of a successive series of seven Ancient World Empires. Such would then be: the Egyptian, the Assyrian, the Babylonian, the Medo Persian, the Grecian, the Pagan-Roman, and the modern Papal Empire. For the wounded Head is the sixth or Roman Head that was already ruling in John’s own day”
3 I saw one of his heads as if it had been slain, and his fatal wound was healed. And the whole earth was amazed and followed after the beast;
The fatal wound was the stone striking the feet of the Great Statue in Dan. 2, the victory of Yeshua, his Resurrection and ascension to the Father and anoiting Kingship at the Father’s right hand. But the Roman Empire still continued, thus, its fatal wound was healed.
4 they worshiped the dragon because he gave his authority to the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast, and who is able to wage war with him?”
Thus, we see the dominance of the Roman Empire and its armies.
5 There was given to him a mouth speaking arrogant words and blasphemies, and authority to act for forty-two months was given to him. 6 And he opened his mouth in blasphemies against God, to blaspheme His name and His tabernacle, that is, those who dwell in heaven.
Here we see again the 1260 day years between 70 A.D. and 1330 A.D.
7 It was also given to him to make war with the saints and to overcome them, and authority over every tribe and people and tongue and nation was given to him. 8 All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been slain. 9 If anyone has an ear, let him hear. 10 If anyone is destined for captivity, to captivity he goes; if anyone kills with the sword, with the sword he must be killed. Here is the perseverance and the faith of the saints.
Here we see the persecution of the early believers in the Roman Empire who were given brief relief under Constantine but soon to return with the ascendancy of the Gnostic-Catholic Theology.
11 Then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb and he spoke as a dragon. 12 He exercises all the authority of the first beast in his presence. And he makes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first beast, whose fatal wound was healed.
Here we see the Roman Papacy lobbying for a continuation of the Roman Empire.
13 He performs great signs, so that he even makes fire come down out of heaven to the earth in the presence of men. 14 And he deceives those who dwell on the earth because of the signs which it was given him to perform in the presence of the beast, telling those who dwell on the earth to make an image to the beast who *had the wound of the sword and has come to life. 15 And it was given to him to give breath to the image of the beast, so that the image of the beast would even speak and cause as many as do not worship the image of the beast to be killed.
Here we have the creation of the Holy Roman Empire. The Image of the Sea Beast.
16 And he causes all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free men and the slaves, to be given a mark on their right hand or on their forehead, 17 and he provides that no one will be able to buy or to sell, except the one who has the mark, either the name of the beast or the number of his name. 18 Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for the number is that of a man; and his number is six hundred and sixty-six.
Here we see the dominance of the Papal Holy Roman Empire and the financial dominance it had over the West. It was required by law that citizens pay the church tithes.
Twelfth Ecumenical Council, Lateran IV 1215, CANON 53
“Summary. Owners who commit their estates to people that pursuant of their rites do not pay tithes, must be compelled to pay them in full.
Text. In some localities there dwell people who according to their rites are not accustomed to pay tithes, though they are considered Christians. To these some owners entrust the cultivation of their estates, in order to defraud the churches of tithes and thus realize greater profits. Wishing, therefore, to safeguard the churches against loss in this matter, we decree that the owners may entrust to such people and in such a manner the cultivation of their estates, but they must without argument pay to the churches the tithes in full, and to this let them be compelled, if necessary, by ecclesiastical censure. All tithes due by reason of the divine law or by reason of an approved local custom must be paid.”
Moreover, those excommunicated by the Church were cut off from local business. The New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia states in its article “Excommunication”:
Civilia jura, i.e. the ordinary relations between members of the same society, outside of sacred and judicial matters. This privation, affecting particularly the person excommunicated, is no longer imposed on the faithful except in regard to the vitandi. The medieval canonists enumerated the prohibited civil relations in the following verse:
Os, orare, vale, communio, mensa negatur,
(a) conversations, exchange of letters, tokens of benevolence (osculum);
(b) prayer in common with the excommunicated;
(c) marks of honour and respect;
(d) business and social relations;
(e) meals with the excommunicated.”
The label 666 is traditionally understood to be the Latin One or the Latin Man:
Against Heresies by St. Irenaeus, Book V, Chapter 30
“3. It is therefore more certain, and less hazardous, to await the fulfilment of the prophecy, than to be making surmises, and casting about for any names that may present themselves, inasmuch as many names can be found possessing the number mentioned; and the same question will, after all, remain unsolved. For if there are many names found possessing this number, it will be asked which among them shall the coming man bear. It is not through a want of names containing the number of that name that I say this, but on account of the fear of God, and zeal for the truth: for the name Evanthas (ΕΥΑΝΘΑΣ) contains the required number, but I make no allegation regarding it. Then also Lateinos (ΛΑΤΕΙΝΟΣ) has the number six hundred and sixty-six; and it is a very probable [solution], this being the name of the last kingdom [of the four seen by Daniel]. For the Latins are they who at present bear rule: I will not, however, make any boast over this [coincidence]. Teitan too, (ΤΕΙΤΑΝ, the first syllable being written with the two Greek vowels ε and ι, among all the names which are found among us, is rather worthy of credit. For it has in itself the predicted number, and is composed of six letters, each syllable containing three letters; and [the word itself] is ancient, and removed from ordinary use; for among our kings we find none bearing this name Titan, nor have any of the idols which are worshipped in public among the Greeks and barbarians this appellation.”