To review from Chapter VI, Elohim has just delivered the early believers from persecution and vindicated them during the reign of Constantine and his family.
7:1 And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree. 2 And I saw another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, 3 Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads.
Thus, we see the beginning of the angel trumpet judgments to be introduced in the next Chapter.
The Psalmist tells us that the judgment against Egypt was enacted by angels.
Psa. 78: 12 Marvellous things did he in the sight of their fathers, in the land of Egypt, in the field of Zoan…49 He cast upon them the fierceness of his anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, by sending evil angels among them.
The angels are prepared to enact more judgment on the Roman Empire in the Seventh Seal but before they can, they are instructed to wait for a season until the elect are brought to faith, as many at this time are coming to Yeshua in faith with the fall of the Roman Pagan Religions. The entire point of this chapter is to show us that the Christianizing of the Roman Empire would fail to bring perfection. That, the Empire would apostatize and not continue Reformation and thus the 144, 000 are mentioned to denote a faithful remnant.
4 And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel. 5 Of the tribe of Juda were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand. 6 Of the tribe of Aser were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Nephthalim were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Manasses were sealed twelve thousand. 7 Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand. 8 Of the tribe of Zabulon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. 9 After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands;
The twelve tribes of Israel are mentioned symbolically as we see them depicted symbolically all over the New Testament to refer to all the elect both Jews and Gentiles who have faith in Yeshua.
Gal. 3: 29 And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.
Heb. 8: 7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second. 8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah: 9 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord. 10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people: 11 And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest. 12 For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more. 13 In that he saith, A new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.
The New Jerusalem is mentioned by John in Rev. 21:
Rev. 21: 10 And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, 11 Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; 12 And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:
Yet, the writer to the Hebrews tells us the Heavenly Jerusalem is the new Covenant Church.
Heb. 12:22 But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, 23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, 24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
The white robes mentioned are no doubt the baptismal linen worn by the early believers at this time when they would be baptized, known as Neophytes.
The Works of the Learned Joseph Bingham Volume 1, The Antiquities of the Christian Church
10 And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.
Notice the distinction between the Father and the Son.
11 And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God, 12 Saying, Amen: Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honour, and power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever. Amen. 13 And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they? 14 And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. 15 Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple: and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them. 16 They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more; neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat.
And we should remember here that this scene is symbolic. It is a vision not a literal reality. It symbolizes a literal reality which is the victory of the early believers during the time and afterwards of Constantine and the end of Paganism in Rome.
17 For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes.
This is probably referring to the ministry of Saint Augustine in the next subsequent age which pointed people to a real inward spirituality rather than the sacerdotal, merely outward and hypocritical superstitious worship of Catholicism that was developing in this period.