613 Commands of Moses for Messianics – Part 3: 21- 30; Hierarchy and Iconoclasm

21. Not to bear a grudge.

Leviticus 19:18 You shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the sons of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself; I am the Lord.

This is further commentary from the above section on Nationalism. This is the teaching of the master Yeshua when he says:

Mat. 5: 21 “You have heard that the ancients were told, ‘You shall not commit murder’ and ‘Whoever commits murder shall be liable to the court.’22 But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother shall be guilty before the court; and whoever says to his brother, ‘You good-for-nothing,’ shall be guilty before the supreme court; and whoever says, ‘You fool,’ shall be guilty enough to go into the fiery hell.

22. To learn Torah and teach it

Deuteronomy 6: 7 You shall teach them diligently to your sons and shall talk of them when you sit in your house and when you walk by the way and when you lie down and when you rise up.

Thus the master Yeshua reaffirms this command saying,

Matt. 5:19 Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

23. To honor those who teach and know Torah.

Leviticus 19:32 ‘You shall rise up before the grayheaded and honor the aged, and you shall revere your Elohim; I am Yahovah.

Here the Torah gives us traditional etiquette and hierarchy now completely lost on our nation and with it the mutual respect and honor of an orderly civilization sacrificed on the altar of Libertarianism and Human Rights.

24. Not to inquire into idolatry.

Leviticus 19:4 Do not turn to idols or make for yourselves molten gods; I am Yahovah your Elohim.

Thus also the apostle Paul reaffirms this commandment in the New Covenant.

1 Corinthians 5:10 Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters; for then must ye needs go out of the world.

1 Corinthians 5:11 But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolator, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat.

1 Corinthians 6:9 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind,

1 Corinthians 12:2 Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led.

2 Cor. 6:16 And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

Gal 5:19 And the works of the flesh are well-known, which are these: adultery, whoring, uncleanness, indecency,Gal 5:20 idolatry,

Eph. 5:5 For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.

1 Thess. 1:9 For they themselves shew of us what manner of entering in we had unto you, and how ye turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God;

25. Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see. .

Numbers 15: 39 It shall be a tassel for you to look at and remember all the commandments of the Lord, so as to do them and not follow after your own heart and your own eyes, after which you played the harlot

Here the Torah teaches us against the Libertarian doctrine of subjective value and instead presents a revealed objective standard of value. Jeremiah emphasizes that the heart of man is sinful and deceptive: Jer. 17:9 The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it?

26. To revere your Civil authorities and not to revile the majesties that the creator has ordained like the Baptists, the Anarchists and the Libertarians.

Exodus 22:28 Thou shalt not revile the elohim, nor curse the ruler of thy people.

Thus, the apostle Paul reaffirms this command stating,

Rom. 13: 1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. 2 Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. 3 For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: 4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.

I have written on this issue elsewhere in detail in my book Thomas Jefferson Was Wrong.

27. Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped.

Exodus 20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;

The creator defines how he is to be worshiped and we are only to worship him in the express way in which he commands. Thus the regulative principle is given to us in Deut. 12:

29 When the Lord thy God shall cut off the nations from before thee, whither thou goest to possess them, and thou succeedest them, and dwellest in their land; 30 Take heed to thyself that thou be not snared by following them, after that they be destroyed from before thee; and that thou enquire not after their gods, saying, How did these nations serve their gods? even so will I do likewise. 31 Thou shalt not do so unto the Lord thy God: for every abomination to the Lord, which he hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters they have burnt in the fire to their gods. 32 What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it.

28. Not to bow down to idols

Exodus 20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them

Bowing down to something is a form of worship and is forbidden. Gillespie addresses the bowing to the Temple and Ark in the Old Testament,

George Gillespie’s English Popish Ceremonies, originally published in 1637; Reprinted in 1844. (Edinburgh: Robert Ogle and Oliver& Boyd), pg. 102-105,

“Sect. 17. The sixth and last argument whereby I prove the kneeling in question to be idolatry, is taken from the nature and kind of the worship wherein it is used. For the receiving of the sacrament being a mediate worship of God, wherein the elements come between God and us, in such sort that they belong to the substance of the worship (for without the elements, the sacrament is not a sacrament), and withal are susceptive of co-adoration, forasmuch as in the act of receiving, both our minds and our external senses are, and should be, fastened upon them; hereby we evince the idolatry of kneeling in the receiving. For in every mediate worship, wherein some creature is purposely set between God and us to have state in the same, it is idolatry to kneel before such a creature, whilst both our minds and senses are fastened upon it. Our opposites have talked many things together to infringe this argument. First, They allege the bowing of God’s people before the ark, the temple, the holy mountain, the altar, the bush, the cloud, the fire which came from heaven. Ans. 1. Where they have read that the people bowed before the altar of God, I know not. Bishop Lindsey indeed would prove from 2 Chron. vi. 12, 13, and Mich. vi. 6, that the people bowed before the altar and the offering. But the first of those places speaks nothing of kneeling before the altar, but only of kneeling before the congregation, that is, in the sight of the congregation. And if Solomon had then kneeled before the altar, yet the altar had been but occasionally and accidentally before him in his adoration; for to what end and use could he have purposely set the altar before him, whilst he was kneeling and praying? The place of Micah cannot prove that God’s people did kneel before the offerings at all (for it speaks only of bowing before God), far less, that they kneeled before them in the very act of offering, and that with their minds and senses fixed upon them, as we kneel in the very act of receiving the sacrament, and that at that instant when our minds and senses are fastened upon the signs, that we may discern the things signified by them, for the exercising of our hearts in a thankful meditation upon the Lord’s death. 2. As for the other examples here alleged, God was immediately present, in and with the ark, the temple, the holy mountain, the bush, the cloud, and the fire which came from heaven, speaking and manifesting himself to his people by his own immediate voice, and miraculous extraordinary presence; so that worshipping before these things had the same reason which makes the twenty-four elders in heaven worship before the throne, Rev. iv. 10; for in these things God did immediately manifest his presence as well as in heaven. Though there be a difference in the degrees of the immediate manifestation of his presence in earth and in heaven, yet magis et minus non variant speciem. Now God is present in the sacrament, not extraordinarily, but in the way of an ordinary dispensation, not immediately, but mediately. They must therefore allege some commendable examples of such a kneeling as we dispute about, in a mediate and ordinary worship, else they say nothing to the point.

Sect. 18. Yet to no better purpose they tell us, that when God spake, Abraham fell on his face; and when the fire came down at Elijah’s prayer, the people fell on their faces. What is this to the purpose? And how shall kneeling in a mediate and ordinary worship be warranted by kneeling in the hearing of God’s own immediate voice, or in seeing the miraculous signs of his extraordinary presence. Howbeit it cannot be proved, neither, that the people fell on their faces in the very act of seeing the fire fall (when their eyes and their minds were fastened upon it), but that after they had seen the miracle wrought, they so considered of it as to fall down and worship God.

But further, it is objected, “that a penitentiary kneels to God purposely before the congregation, and with a respect to the congregation, &c. When we come to our common tables before we eat, either sitting with our heads discovered, or standing, or kneeling, we give thanks and bless, with a respect to the meat, which is purposely set on table, &c. The pastor, when he begins the holy action, hath the bread and the cup set before him purposely upon the table, and with respect to them he gives thanks,” &c.

Ans. Though a penitentiary kneel to God purposely in the presence and sight of the congregation, that he may make known to them his repentance for the sin whereby he hath scandalised them, yet is the confessing of his sin to God, kneeling there upon his knees, an immediate worship, neither doth the congregation come betwixt him and God, as belonging to the substance of this worship, for he kneeleth to God as well, and maketh confession of his sin, when the congregation is not before him. But I suppose our kneelers themselves will confess, that the elements come so betwixt God and them when they kneel, that they belong to the essence of the worship in hand, and that they would not, nor could not, worship the flesh and blood of Christ in the sacrament, if the elements were not before them.

To be short, the case of a penitentiary standeth thus, that not in his kneeling simpliciter, but in his kneeling publicly and in sight of the congregation, he setteth them before him purposely, and with a respect to them; whereas our kneelers do kneel in such sort that their kneeling simpliciter, and without an adjection or adjunct, hath a respect to the elements purposely set before them; neither would they at all kneel for that end and purpose for which they do kneel, namely, for worshipping the flesh and blood of Christ in the sacrament, except the elements were before the eyes both of their minds and bodies, as the penitentiary doth kneel for making confession of his sin to God, when the congregation is not before him.

And if one would say, that in kneeling at the sacrament he worshippeth not the flesh and blood of Christ, but the Lord his God only, yet is the same difference to be put betwixt his kneeling before the elements, and the kneeling of a penitentiary before the congregation: for the very kneeling itself (simply considered) before the elements, respecteth them as then purposely set in our sight that we may kneel before them; whereas, in the case of the penitentiary, it is not his kneeling to confess his sin to God which hath a respect to the congregation as set in his sight for that purpose, but some circumstances of his kneeling only, to wit, when ? At that time when the congregation is assembled. And where? Publicly in sight of the congregation! In regard of these circumstances, he hath the congregation purposely in his sight, and so respecteth them; but in regard of the kneeling itself simply, the presence of the congregation is but accidental to him who kneeleth and confesseth his sin before God. As touching giving thanks before the meat set on our common tables, though a man should do it kneeling, yet this speaketh not home to the point now in controversy, except a man so kneel before his meat, that he have a religious respect to it as a thing separated from a common use and made holy, and likewise have both his mind, and his external senses of seeing, touching, and tasting, fastened upon it in the act of his kneeling. And if a man should thus kneel before his meat, he were an idolater.

Lastly, Giving thanks before the elements of bread and wine, in the beginning of the holy action, is as far from the purpose; for this giving of thanks is an immediate worship of God, wherein we have our minds and senses, not upon the bread and wine as upon things which have a state in that worship of the Lord’s supper, and belong to the substance of the same (for the very consecration of them to this use is but then in fieri), but we worship God immediately by prayer and giving of thanks, which is all otherwise in the act of receiving.

Sect. 19. Moreover it is objected out of Lev. ix. 24 ; 2 Chron. vii. 3 ;Mich.vi. 6 ; 2 Chron. xxix. 28—30, that all the people fell on their faces before the legal sacrifices, when the fire consumed the burnt-offering.

Whereunto it may be answered, that the fire which came from God and consumed the burnt-offerings, was one of the miraculous signs of God’s extraordinary and immediate presence (as I have said before), and therefore kneeling before the same hath nothing to do with the present purpose.

But if we will particularly consider all these places, we find in the first two, that beside the fire, the glory of the Lord did also appear in a more miraculous and extraordinary manner, Lev. ix. 23, “The glory of the Lord appeared to all the people;” 2 Chron. vii. 1,12, “The glory of the Lord filled the house.” They are therefore running at random who take hold of those places to draw out of them the lawfulness of kneeling in a mediate and ordinary worship.

The place of Micah I have answered before; and here I add, that though it could be proved from that place (as it cannot), that the people have bowed before the offerings, and that in the very act of offering, yet how shall it be proved, that in the act of their kneeling they had the offerings purposely before them, and their minds and senses fixed upon them in the very instant of their worshiping.

This I make clear by the last place, 2 Chron. xxix., out of which no more can be drawn but that the people worshipped whilst the priests were yet offering the burnt-offering. Now the burnt-offering was but accidentally before the people in their worshipping, and only because it was offered at the same time when the song of the Lord was sung, ver. 27. Such was the forwardness of zeal in restoring religion and purging the temple, that it admitted no stay, but eagerly prosecuted the work till it was perfected ; therefore the thing was done suddenly, ver. 36. Since, then, the song and the sacrifice were performed at the same time, we must note that the people worshipped at that time, not because of the sacrifice, which was a mediate worship, but because of the song of the Lord, which was an immediate worship. Now we all commend kneeling in an immediate worship. But this cannot content our opposites; they will needs have it lawful to kneel, in the hearing of the word, purposely, and with a respect to the word preached (though this be a mediate worship only). Their warrants1 are taken out, Exod. iv. 30, 31; Exod. xii. 27; 2 Chron. xx. 18; Matt. xvii. 6. From the first three places no more can be inferred but that these hearers bowed their heads and worshipped, after that they heard the word of the Lord; neither shall they ever warrant bowing and worshipping in the act of hearing.


In the fourth place, we read that the disciples fell on their faces when they heard God’s own immediate voice out of the cloud. What maketh this for falling down to worship at the hearing of the word preached by men? How long shall our opposites not distinguish betwixt mediate and immediate worship?…Sect. 20. But tho kneelers would yet make more ado to us, and be still stirring if they can do no more. Wherefore one of our doctors objecteth,1 that we lift up our eyes and our hands to heaven, and worship God, yet we do not worship the heaven ; that a man going to bed, prayeth before his bed ; that David offered the sacrifices of thanksgiving, in the presence of all the people, sal. cxvi; that Paul, having taken bread, gave thanks before all them who were in the ship, Acts xxvii. 36; that the Israelites worshipped before Moses and Aaron, Exod. iv. 31. Hereupon another doctor, harping upon the same string, tells us,a that when we kneel in the act of receiving the sacrament, ” we kneel no more to bread than to the pulpit when we join our prayers with the minister’s.” *********Oh, unworthy instances, and reproachful to doctors ! All these things were and are accidentally present to the worshippers, and not purposely before them************, nor respected as having a religious state in the worship. What ? Do we worship before the bread in the sacrament, even as before a pulpit, a bed, &c. ? Nay, graduate men should understand better what they speak of.” (pg.105)

29. Not to make an idol.

Exodus 20:4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.

This is not to say that all images are wrong. The creator himself commanded that a graven image be placed upon the ark of the covenant; but that we refrain from making an image for the purpose of worshipping it.

30. Not to make an idol for others.

Leviticus 19:4 Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the Lord your God.

Thus, the sense is not to make idols for the general use of the body politic.

Exposition of the 613 Commands of the Torah; Part 2: 11-20; Marcion, Nationalism, International Relations

11.To emulate God’s ways

Deut. 28: 9 The Lord shall establish thee an holy people unto himself, as he hath sworn unto thee, if thou shalt keep the commandments of the Lord thy God, and walk in his ways.

Thus our apostle Paul echos:

Eph. 5: 1 Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children; 2 and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma.

Our enemies, both Atheistic, Pantheistic and Gnostic-Christian, tell us Yahovah is a psychopath and not to be imitated. This was the position of Marcion who’s heresy is still very much alive and well today. We read in Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Book I, Chapter 27 of Marcion:

  1. Cerdo was one who took his system from the followers of Simon, and came to live at Rome in the time of Hyginus, who held the ninth place in the episcopal succession from the apostles downwards. He taught that the God proclaimed by the law and the prophets was not the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. For the former was known, but the latter unknown; while the one also was righteous, but the other benevolent.

  2. Marcion of Pontus succeeded him, and developed his doctrine. In so doing, he advanced the most daring blasphemy against Him who is proclaimed as God by the law and the prophets, declaring Him to be the author of evils, to take delight in war, to be infirm of purpose, and even to be contrary to Himself. But Jesus being derived from that father who is above the God that made the world, and coming into Judæa in the times of Pontius Pilate the governor, who was the procurator of Tiberius Cæsar, was manifested in the form of a man to those who were in Judæa, abolishing the prophets and the law, and all the works of that God who made the world, whom also he calls Cosmocrator. Besides this, he mutilates the Gospel which is according to Luke, removing all that is written respecting the generation of the Lord, and setting aside a great deal of the teaching of the Lord, in which the Lord is recorded as most dearly confessing that the Maker of this universe is His Father. He likewise persuaded his disciples that he himself was more worthy of credit than are those apostles who have handed down the Gospel to us, furnishing them not with the Gospel, but merely a fragment of it. In like manner, too, he dismembered the Epistles of Paul, removing all that is said by the apostle respecting that God who made the world, to the effect that He is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and also those passages from the prophetical writings which the apostle quotes, in order to teach us that they announced beforehand the coming of the Lord.

  3. Salvation will be the attainment only of those souls which had learned his doctrine; while the body, as having been taken from the earth, is incapable of sharing in salvation. In addition to his blasphemy against God Himself, he advanced this also, truly speaking as with the mouth of the devil, and saying all things in direct opposition to the truth—that Cain, and those like him, and the Sodomites, and the Egyptians, and others like them, and, in fine, all the nations who walked in all sorts of abomination, were saved by the Lord, on His descending into Hades, and on their running unto Him, and that they welcomed Him into their kingdom. But the serpent which was in Marcion declared that Abel, and Enoch, and Noah, and those other righteous men who sprang from the patriarch Abraham, with all the prophets, and those who were pleasing to God, did not partake in salvation. For since these men, he says, knew that their God was constantly tempting them, so now they suspected that He was tempting them, and did not run to Jesus, or believe His announcement: and for this reason he declared that their souls remained in Hades.

  4. But since this man is the only one who has dared openly to mutilate the Scriptures, and unblushingly above all others to inveigh against God, I purpose specially to refute him, convicting him out of his own writings; and, with the help of God, I shall overthrow him out of those discourses of the Lord and the apostles, which are of authority with him, and of which he makes use. At present, however, I have simply been led to mention him, that you might know that all those who in any way corrupt the truth, and injuriously affect the preaching of the Church, are the disciples and successors of Simon Magus of Samaria. Although they do not confess the name of their master, in order all the more to seduce others, yet they do teach his doctrines. They set forth, indeed, the name of Christ Jesus as a sort of lure, but in various ways they introduce the impieties of Simon; and thus they destroy multitudes, wickedly disseminating their own doctrines by the use of a good name, and, through means of its sweetness and beauty, extending to their hearers the bitter and malignant poison of the serpent, the great author of apostasy. Revelation 12:9.”


This is then our justification to conquer our enemies and punish the wicked among  us as Elohim commanded in the Torah(Deut. 13, Exo. 32). As we have seen in recent history, if you don’t exterminate the wicked they’ll be exterminating you.

           12.To cleave to Elohim and swear oaths. (My edition from cleaving to scholars)

Deut. 10:20 Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God; him shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and swear by his name.

The Jews say this verse means to cleave to Talmud Scholars. That seems to be a bit of a stretch. Though teachers are very helpful and necessary for such a task that isn’t what the passage says.

And again we are faced with the swearing and vowing issue which was spoken to by the Master Yeshua in Matt. 5:34. Robert Shaw Commenting on the Westminster Confession C. 22 states,

“there is much in the New Testament to confirm the practice. The Apostle Paul frequently appeals to God in these and similar expressions: “God is my witness:”–”I say the truth in Christ, I lie not”, (Rom. i. 9, ix.1): “I call God for a record upon my soul.”–2 Cor. i. 23. Christ himself answered the question of the high priest, when he adjured him by the living God; which was the common form of administering an oath among the Jews. The writer to the Hebrews speaks of the oath which God swore to Abraham, “who, because he could swear by no greater, aware by himself;” and he adds, “An oath for confirmation is an end of all strife” (Heb. vi. 13, 16); plainly showing that he sanctioned the practice. It must be evident, therefore, that our Saviour’s words (Matt. v. 34), “Swear not at all,” and the similar words of the Apostle James (v. 12), do not absolutely prohibit all swearing on necessary end solemn occasions; but only forbid the practice of swearing in common conversation, and particularly of swearing by creatures. It must be remarked, however, that an appeal to God in trivial matters, and the frequent and unnecessary repetition of the same oath, is a taking the name of God in vain. And it may also be observed, that as the lifting up of the hand is the usual mode of swearing mentioned in Scripture (Gen. xiv. 22; Rev. x. 5, 6), so it ought to be preferred; and all superstitious forms ought to be rejected.”

13.To love others of your own nation

Leviticus 19: 17 Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart: thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sin upon him. 18 Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the Lord. 19 Ye shall keep my statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind: thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled seed: neither shall a garment mingled of linen and woollen come upon thee.

This is an issue I have already spoken to in great detail in my video: “Biblical Love is Racism; Pacifism Refuted; Biblical National Socialism Defended ”

The Jewish version of this reads, To love other Jews. This is one of the most important principles of the Bible for the problems of the modern world. The Bible is a Nationalist book. Surely, it was originally designed for the Jews, but through the Master Yeshua, we believing Gentiles are made spiritual children of Abraham, Gal. 3, and the Bible is now our heritage, especially those of us of British Stock and those in the original 13 colonies of the United States who’s nations swore allegiance to the Bible and the Protestant Reformation in the Solemn League and Covenant. The Bible does not teach us to love other peoples who want to invade our countries and rape, pillage and murder;  and anyone who says that we should allow this are the vilest scum of the Earth. When our Master Yeshua taught to love our enemies this is what it meant, for he makes very clear to us that he did  not come to do away with the law and the prophets.

14.To love converts.

Deuteronomy 10:19 Love ye therefore the stranger: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Now this passage does have distinct application for the Jewish people as the British people were never strangers in Egypt,  but as our apostle says the law is holy and the commandment holy just and good, Rom. 7:12-14, so it also applies to us. A small percentage of immigration is allowed but not the point that it threatens the identity of the Nation ethnically. Paul tells us in Romans 9 that he has a distinct preference for his own kinsmen in Romans 9:1-3. Therefore, we should preserve and protect our kinsmen as well. Moreover, accepting immigration does not mean we accept them as equals. As Dabney states,

“A “caste distinction ” is also found among the bondmen, whose subjection was legalized by the constitution. A person of Hebrew blood could only be enslaved for six years. A person of foreign blood could be held in hereditary slavery, although born within the land of Israel as much as the other. It was also provided that the treatment of bondmen of Hebrew blood should be more lenient. (Lev. xxv. 42-47.) A “caste distinction” was also provided concerning the entrance of persons of foreign blood into the Hebrew state and church. (Exodus xvii. 16; Deut. xxiii.3-8.)”

Robert Lewis Dabney, “Anti-Biblical Theories of Rights”

The Torah ruled Body Politic exercises an equality of penal justice, Num. 15:15-16,  but not an equality of privilege and franchise.

15. Not to hate a fellow countrymen – -Leviticus 19:17

Already spoken to above. And is it not interesting that the modern Hebrew Roots movement claims to have such devotion to the Torah and yet completely ignores this section of the 613 Commands.

16. To reprove wrongdoers

Leviticus 19:17 Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart: thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sin upon him.

Thus, the Bible teaches us to judge others. Yeshua tells us not to make our judgments superficial based on mere appearance or hypocritical in not making the same judgments of ourselves. But Yeshua still commands us to judge others.

Matt. 7: 1 Judge not, that ye be not judged. 2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. 3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?

John 7: 24 Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment.

Yeshua judged the Jewish leaders often, even resorting to severe name calling in Matthew 23.

Matt. 23: 32 Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. 33 Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell? 34 Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: 35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. 36 Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

17. Not to partake in other men’s sins but to rebuke them. (Jewish version reads not to embarrass someone publicly with a rebuke which may have some ground in Mat 18:15)

Lev. 19:17 c “but you shall not bear a sin on his account.”

This can happen when we refuse to confront the sins in others that we become to participate in their wickedness. For instance if we have witnessed the spouse of one of our brother’s cheating on him with another man we are morally urged to tell him and if we don’t this is partaking in her wickedness.

Thus Paul states,

1 Tim. 5: 19 Do not receive an accusation against an elder except on the basis of two or three witnesses. 20 Those who continue in sin, rebuke in the presence of all, so that the rest also will be fearful of sinning. 21 I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of His chosen angels, to maintain these principles without bias, doing nothing in a spirit of partiality. 22 Do not lay hands upon anyone too hastily and thereby share responsibility for the sins of others; keep yourself free from sin.

And Yeshua qualifies,

Matt. 18: 15 “If your brother sins[k], go and [l]show him his fault [m]in private; if he listens to you, you have won your brother. 16 But if he does not listen to you, take one or two more with you, so that by the mouth of two or three witnesses every [n]fact may be confirmed. 17 If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuses to listen even to the church, let him be to you as [o]a Gentile and [p]a tax collector. 18 Truly I say to you, whatever you [q]bind on earth [r]shall have been bound in heaven; and whatever you [s]loose on earth [t]shall have been loosed in heaven.

18. Not to oppress the weak or the stranger Exodus 22:21 “You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Being that we are all from Adam and even our religion comes from the Jews, we are not to take our Nationalism to the degree that we oppress all foreigners in a hyper-xenophobia.

19. Not to gossip about others

Leviticus 19:16 You shall not go about as a slanderer among your people, and you are not to act against the life of your neighbor; I am Yahovah.

Thus, the apostle Paul gives us a case example stating,

1 Tim.  5:11 But refuse to put younger widows on the list, for when they feel sensual desires in disregard of Christ, they want to get married, 12 thus incurring condemnation, because they have set aside their previous pledge. 13 At the same time they also learn to be idle, as they go around from house to house; and not merely idle, but also gossips and busybodies, talking about things not proper to mention.

To this day there are entire industries devoted to Gossip. TMZ is one of the biggest if not the biggest platform for such swill. These industries are dominated by women because Gossip arises from women when they have nothing better to do and I would maintain the Feminist movement began by wealthy women who had nothing better to do than create chaos in their societies. The Industrial Revolution was also a large catalyst in this with more men leaving the home everyday to work at the factory and leaving their wives at home.

20. Not to take revenge – Lev. 19:18

This is not to say that Nations cannot take revenge on other Nations in military conflict.

Num. 31:1 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Take full vengeance for the sons of Israel on the Midianites; afterward you will be gathered to your people.” 3 Moses spoke to the people, saying, “Arm men from among you for the war, that they may go against Midian to execute the Lord’s vengeance on Midian.

Nor does it forbid taking vengeance against traitors and apostates from among your own nation:

Deut. 13: 12 “If you hear in one of your cities, which the Lord your God is giving you to live in, anyone saying that 13 some worthless men have gone out from among you and have seduced the inhabitants of their city, saying, ‘Let us go and serve other gods’ (whom you have not known), 14 then you shall investigate and search out and inquire thoroughly. If it is true and the matter established that this abomination has been done among you, 15 you shall surely strike the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying it and all that is in it and its cattle with the edge of the sword. 16 Then you shall gather all its booty into the middle of its open square and burn the city and all its booty with fire as a whole burnt offering to the Lord your God; and it shall be a ruin forever. It shall never be rebuilt.

Exo. 32: 25 Now when Moses saw that the people were out of control—for Aaron had let them get out of control to be a derision among their enemies— 26 then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, “Whoever is for the Lord, come to me!” And all the sons of Levi gathered together to him. 27 He said to them, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘Every man of you put his sword upon his thigh, and go back and forth from gate to gate in the camp, and kill every man his brother, and every man his friend, and every man his neighbor.’” 28 So the sons of Levi did as Moses instructed, and about three thousand men of the people fell that day. 29 Then Moses said, “Dedicate yourselves today to the Lord—for every man has been against his son and against his brother—in order that He may bestow a blessing upon you today.”

But on a personal level with another countrymen, Paul tells us not to take our own revenge. Rom. 12:

19 Never take your own revenge, beloved, but p]”>[p]leave room for the wrath of God, for it is written, “Vengeance is Mine, I will repay,” (Deut. 32:35) says the Lord. 20 “But if your enemy is hungry, feed him, and if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.” 21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

Moses makes this distinction clear with a specific case stating,

Exo. 23:“If you meet your enemy’s ox or his donkey wandering away, you shall surely return it to him. If you see the donkey of one who hates you lying helpless under its load, you shall refrain from leaving it to him, you shall surely release it with him.

Five Irrefutable Arguments Against Tithing

Before I begin I would present the caveat that I am in no way arguing that New Covenant ministers should not be paid for their service. The apostle Paul, 1 Cor. 9:7-14, makes very clear that we are morally bound to provide a comfortable life for ministers in the Congregation. To avoid paying lawful ministers for their work is a sin.

The first sanctified caste in Israel was not the Levites. It was the firstborn.

Exodus 13:1 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 2 Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.

The creator took the Levites as substitute for the firstborn as his new sanctified caste in Israel.

Num. 3: 12 And I, behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of all the firstborn that openeth the matrix among the children of Israel: therefore the Levites shall be mine;13 Because all the firstborn are mine; for on the day that I smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt I hallowed unto me all the firstborn in Israel, both man and beast: mine shall they be: I am the Lord.

Not all Levites were priests. The sons of Aaron were priests. The other lineage of Levi served the sons of Aaron the priest.

1 Chron. 23:6 And David divided them into courses among the sons of Levi, namely, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 7 Of the Gershonites were, Laadan, and Shimei. 8 The sons of Laadan; the chief was Jehiel, and Zetham, and Joel, three. 9 The sons of Shimei; Shelomith, and Haziel, and Haran, three. These were the chief of the fathers of Laadan. 10 And the sons of Shimei were, Jahath, Zina, and Jeush, and Beriah. These four were the sons of Shimei. 11 And Jahath was the chief, and Zizah the second: but Jeush and Beriah had not many sons; therefore they were in one reckoning, according to their father’s house. 12 The sons of Kohath; Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, four. 13 The sons of Amram; Aaron and Moses: and Aaron was separated, that he should sanctify the most holy things, he and his sons for ever, to burn incense before the Lord, to minister unto him, and to bless in his name for ever. 14 Now concerning Moses the man of God, his sons were named of the tribe of Levi. 15 The sons of Moses were, Gershom, and Eliezer. 16 Of the sons of Gershom, Shebuel was the chief. 17 And the sons of Eliezer were, Rehabiah the chief. And Eliezer had none other sons; but the sons of Rehabiah were very many. 18 Of the sons of Izhar; Shelomith the chief. 19 Of the sons of Hebron; Jeriah the first, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth. 20 Of the sons of Uzziel; Micah the first and Jesiah the second. 21 The sons of Merari; Mahli, and Mushi. The sons of Mahli; Eleazar, and Kish. 22 And Eleazar died, and had no sons, but daughters: and their brethren the sons of Kish took them. 23 The sons of Mushi; Mahli, and Eder, and Jeremoth, three.

24 These were the sons of Levi after the house of their fathers; even the chief of the fathers, as they were counted by number of names by their polls, that did the work for the service of the house of the Lord, from the age of twenty years and upward. 25 For David said, The Lord God of Israel hath given rest unto his people, that they may dwell in Jerusalem for ever: 26 And also unto the Levites; they shall no more carry the tabernacle, nor any vessels of it for the service thereof. 27 For by the last words of David the Levites were numbered from twenty years old and above: 28 Because their office was to wait on the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of the Lord, in the courts, and in the chambers, and in the purifying of all holy things, and the work of the service of the house of God;

And again,

Numbers 4: 1 And the Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 2 Take the sum of the sons of Kohath from among the sons of Levi, after their families, by the house of their fathers, 3 From thirty years old and upward even until fifty years old, all that enter into the host, to do the work in the tabernacle of the congregation.

4 This shall be the service of the sons of Kohath in the tabernacle of the congregation, about the most holy things: 5 And when the camp setteth forward, Aaron shall come, and his sons, and they shall take down the covering vail, and cover the ark of testimony with it: 6 And shall put thereon the covering of badgers’ skins, and shall spread over it a cloth wholly of blue, and shall put in the staves thereof. 7 And upon the table of shewbread they shall spread a cloth of blue, and put thereon the dishes, and the spoons, and the bowls, and covers to cover withal: and the continual bread shall be thereon: 8 And they shall spread upon them a cloth of scarlet, and cover the same with a covering of badgers’ skins, and shall put in the staves thereof. 9 And they shall take a cloth of blue, and cover the candlestick of the light, and his lamps, and his tongs, and his snuffdishes, and all the oil vessels thereof, wherewith they minister unto it: 10 And they shall put it and all the vessels thereof within a covering of badgers’ skins, and shall put it upon a bar. 11 And upon the golden altar they shall spread a cloth of blue, and cover it with a covering of badgers’ skins, and shall put to the staves thereof: 12 And they shall take all the instruments of ministry, wherewith they minister in the sanctuary, and put them in a cloth of blue, and cover them with a covering of badgers’ skins, and shall put them on a bar: 13 And they shall take away the ashes from the altar, and spread a purple cloth thereon: 14 And they shall put upon it all the vessels thereof, wherewith they minister about it, even the censers, the fleshhooks, and the shovels, and the basons, all the vessels of the altar; and they shall spread upon it a covering of badgers’ skins, and put to the staves of it. 15 And when Aaron and his sons have made an end of covering the sanctuary, and all the vessels of the sanctuary, as the camp is to set forward; after that, the sons of Kohath shall come to bear it: but they shall not touch any holy thing, lest they die. These things are the burden of the sons of Kohath in the tabernacle of the congregation. 16 And to the office of Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest pertaineth the oil for the light, and the sweet incense, and the daily meat offering, and the anointing oil, and the oversight of all the tabernacle, and of all that therein is, in the sanctuary, and in the vessels thereof. 17 And the Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron saying, 18 Cut ye not off the tribe of the families of the Kohathites from among the Levites: 19 But thus do unto them, that they may live, and not die, when they approach unto the most holy things: Aaron and his sons shall go in, and appoint them every one to his service and to his burden:

  1. The purpose of the tithe to the Levites was that because they had no inheritance in the land of Canaan and they were not to have a normal job, nor to serve merely as a teaching Rabbi but a sacerdotal Priest, their living was to be provided by the people as recompense for their lack of inheritance and priestly service which they were to devote themselves to entirely. This is the basis of the tithe and it has absolutely nothing to do with our civilization or ministers in the congregation. The tithe was not simply given as a wage for their religious service it was given as an inheritance. One of the clearest evidences of this is that many Levites were not priests as has been already demonstrated.

Num. 18: 20 And the Lord spake unto Aaron, Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any part among them: I am thy part and thine inheritance among the children of Israel. 21 And, behold, I have given the children of Levi all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, for their service which they serve, even the service of the tabernacle of the congregation. 22 Neither must the children of Israel henceforth come nigh the tabernacle of the congregation, lest they bear sin, and die. 23 But the Levites shall do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they shall bear their iniquity: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, that among the children of Israel they have no inheritance. 24 But the tithes of the children of Israel, which they offer as an heave offering unto the Lord, I have given to the Levites to inherit: therefore I have said unto them

Deut. 18:1 The priests the Levites, and all the tribe of Levi, shall have no part nor inheritance with Israel: they shall eat the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and his inheritance. 2 Therefore shall they have no inheritance among their brethren: the Lord is their inheritance, as he hath said unto them.

  1. The Synagogue was devoted to teaching the Scriptures and public worship yet was not governed by Levite priests nor received of the tithe.

The Synagogue and the Church by Vitringa, ed. Joshua L. Bernard states,

“Every Jewish city of any repute had its council, which sat in the chief synagogue of the city; and as in the Jewish polity, church and state were not only intimately united, but were, in fact, identical; this council had supreme authority in all matters, whether ecclesiastical or civil. Each council had its President or Patriarch. Its members were styled Presbyters, or Elders.

That such was the nature of the Jewish councils, and such the names given to their; members, appears from many sources. We will cite, in the first place, as the most ancient testimony, the Apocryphal Book of Susannah. In this book we read of two Elders, (presbyteri,) who were wont to meet at the house of Joacim, to judge the people. Though the history is fabulous, still it is likely, that it was composed so as to be conformable to the customs of the times, in which it was written.

From Our next testimony will be from Philo. He, (in his Life of Moses,) commenting on the judgment passed upon the sabbath breaker/ who gathered sticks upon the sabbath-day, says; ‘They brought him before the President, with whom the priests sat in council ;’ an evident allusion to the customs of the synagogue in his time.

Josephus, in his Jewish War,[Book ii, chap. 12] speaking of the strife at Caesarasa between the Jews and Syrians, says; ” The Elders (presbyteri) of the Jews were unable to restrain their own people ;” and in the account given by him of this sedition, no other rulers are mentioned, but these Elders. In the fourteenth chapter of the same book, when narrating another tumult that occurred at Caesaraea, he speaks of the Rulers of the Jews, and these twelve in number. In another book, making mention of one Antiochus, he says, “that he was a man of repute amongst the people, because his father was the Chief {archon) of the Jews at Antioch.”‘ And to give one instance more, (one which proves the union of the ecclesiastical and civil jurisdiction in the same individuals): one Jesus, the Ruler of Tiberias, is represented “as ordering the multitude to depart from the synagogue, and permitting the Senate alone to remain.” This last passage is conclusive as to the form of synagogal government: there is in it mention of a President and Senate, and also strong evidence, that the President of the synagogue was also the Chief magistrate of the city; for he is styled the Ruler {archon) of Tiberias.

Maimonides, in his treatise on fasting, sets before us the same form of government. Whenever there is a fast for rain, ” the ark is brought out into the street; the assembled people cover themselves with sackcloth, and scatter ashes on the ark, and on the book of the law: then one of the congregation takes some of the ashes, and sprinkles them on the head of the President. The ark is then placed in the midst; and, all sitting down, some Rabbi of the Elders stands up to read, &c.” This quotation from Maimonides exhibits the form of government above described; viz. a council, consisting of members called Elders, and a President, the head of this council.

But there is no where such express mention of the form of government of the synagogue, as in the writings of Benjamin of Toledo[Tudela] Speaking of the Jews at Damascus, he says; “There is in this place the Chief of the Senate, whose name is R. Ezra, and his brother Sarschalom, the father of the house of judgment, and R. Joseph, holding the fifth place in the senate, and R. Massach, the speaker, and R. Meir, the glory of wise men, and R. Joseph, a stone to be admired, the pillar of the assembly, and R. Heman, the pastor, and R. Tsaddick, the physician.” [THE ITINERARY OF BENJAMIN OF TUDELA, pg. 48 in the Gutenberg Ed. – DS]

This Senate with its Chief (he informs us) managed all matters at Damascus, whether civil or ecclesiastical. Again, speaking of the Jews at Constantinople,” he tells us, that there was in that city, a Senate consisting of five persons, and one of them R. Eliakim, the Pastor. Speaking of the Jews at Marseilles, he says, “After three days, I came to Marseilles, in which city there are many illustrious and learned men; there are two churches on the sea shore, one in the plain, the other on the hill. The illustrious men of the city constitute the great Council. R. Simeon, the son of R. Antolius, R. Jacob, his brother, and R. Levan, preside over the higher college; and R. Jacob Phirpienus, R. Abraham, &c., over the lower.” These testimonies abundantly prove, that where-ever the Jews were in any number, they appointed a council, under the control of which, all civil and religious affairs were managed.

If the Jews in any place were but few in number, the entire management of the synagogue was entrusted to one Rabbi. Thus Benjamin, speaking of a city in Egypt, says; “There is a synagogue without the city, and one Elder, who is a Rabbi, acts as Pastor and Minister of the synagogue.'” Buxtorf, in his Jewish Synagogue, bears testimony to the same. “Where there are about ten Jewish families, they endeavour to procure some Rabbi, to instruct their children, to advise them in divine things, to read prayers, and to perform the other offices of religion.

This Rabbi has the power of ordaining;” he declares the meaning of the law, administers justice, celebrates marriages, grants divorces; in a word, he has vested in him the authority of an entire presbytery.”

In modern synagogues, as in general, there cannot be collected a sufficient number of Rabbies to form a council; they have, besides the presiding Rabbi, a lay senate, called Parnasim, whose authority and office is in some respects similar to that of the presbytery. They have supreme power, (as far as is permitted by the laws of the people amongst whom they live,) in all things beyond the walls of the synagogue. It is their business, to see that the synagogue and its furniture is in good repair; they impose tribute for sacred and civil purposes; inflict punishment on the refractory; support and redeem the captives of their nation; and plead the cause of their citizens before Gentile magistrates: in a word, the Parnasim have now the privileges and the powers of the ancient councils; there being however this difference, that they are the most wealthy, and not, as of old, the most learned members of the body; and that they hold their office for but one year, being annually chosen by the free voice of the people.

We shall find, that as far as there is mention, in the New Testament, of the government of the synagogue, it confirms the account above given. We have evidence that there were many rulers in one synagogue (of course forming a council) : thus the Evangelist Luke, speaking of St. Paul and his companions, says; ” They came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the sabbath-day, and sat down ; and after the reading of the law and the prophets, the Rulers of the synagogue sent unto them,” [Acts 13:14-15 – DS] &c.; these Rulers, as far as we can judge from the context, equal in rank, dignity, and office; and constituting, most probably, the presbytery of the synagogue of Antioch. In another chapter/ the same Evangelist mentions by name two of the rulers of the synagogue at Corinth, viz. Crispus and Sosthenes. The Evangelist Mark informs us, that Jairus was one of the rulers of the synagogue at Capernaum. [Mark 5:22 – DS] The New Testament, then, confirms our view of the government of the synagogue; and though we meet with passages in which but the one Ruler is mentioned,[Acts 18:8, 17] still this does not subvert our position; the government of the synagogue being sometimes confided to one Rabbi.”

Now according to the tithe advocates the Rabbis should have been considered Levite priests and received of the tithe seeing they ministered religious services in the synagogue. But they were not considered Priests.

The Jewish Encyclopedia states in its article “Rabbi”,

“The practical theologian [rabbi, minister, or priest] holds among the Jews the position of moral influence appropriate to him. Neither as priest, by his ordination, nor as officer, by the material power of the state, is he entitled to interfere in the direction of religious affairs; but only through his knowledge, through the call he receives from the congregation, and through being imbued with the spirit, is he so entitled and is he furthermore the custodian of the eternal contents, of the transient history, and of the further development, of Judaism; as such he is entitled to a more authoritative voice than others. As little as he is a master, so little he is a mere servant” (Geiger, “Nachgelassene Schriften,” ii. 27).

In the Jewish religion the rabbi is no priest, no apostle; he has no hierarchical power. He is a teacher, one who unfolds and explains religion, teaches the young in the school and the old from the pulpit, and both by his writings.”


Moreover, Dr.  Rabbi Louis Jacobs, in his The Jewish Religion (Oxford University Press), points out how the Rabbis so far from receiving the tithes perfected a system of tithing in order to pay tithes to Levites.


  1. The synagogue was the template for the New Covenant Church. James 2:2 refers to a New Covenant assembly as a synagogue. Thus, we are not to tithe to the New Covenant Church as the Jews did not tithe to the Synagogue. Again this does not mean we do not give freewill offerings to support the ministry. We should provide a comfortable living for the ministers of congregations.

As I have already pointed out in my video on the Synagogue based on the work of Vitringa,

the elements of Synagogue worship are in substance the same with those of the New Covenant Church:

  1. OT saints bowed in reverence to the holy of holies, so also in the synagogue bowing was done toward the chest with the law. (pg. 45)
  2. There was a Presbyterian government (pg. 55-56, 81-84)
  3. Deacons (pg. 87)
  4. A Chest for free will offerings from which the Synagogue was funded not from the tithe. (pg. 73-75)
  5. Teaching was done in the synagogue. Mat 4:23, 26:55. The sermons were exegetical as Neh. 8 made very clear as they explained the law to the people and gave the sense.
  6. Public prayer (pg. 103)
  7. Psalm chanting as a prayer (pg. 115) and Psalm singing. (pg. 139)
  1. The Levitical Priesthood was abolished. Heb 7, 8, 9

Heb. 7: 11 If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of Aaron? 12 For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law.

Heb. 8:1 Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; 2 A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man. 3 For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices: wherefore it is of necessity that this man have somewhat also to offer. 4 For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law: 5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.

7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second…

13 In that he saith, A new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.

Heb. 9: 7 But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people: 8 The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing: 9 Which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience; 10 Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation.

    1. When Paul speaks to the issue of supplying ministers in congregations he mentions nothing of tithing.


Owen states in his commentary on Hebrews 7,

“On these suppositions it is that the apostle, treating of this matter, makes no use of the right or law of tithing, though directly unto his purpose if it had not been abrogated. For intending to prove that the ministers of the gospel ought to be liberally supported in their work with the earthly things of them unto whom they do administer the things of God, he argueth from the light of nature, the general equity of other cases, the analogy of legal institutions, the rules of justice, with the especial institution of Christ in the gospel, but makes no mention of the natural or legal right of tithing, 1 Corinthians 9:7-14. And farther I shall not at present divert on this subject.”

and again,

1 Cor. 9: 7 Who goeth a warfare any time at his own charges? who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? or who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock? 8 Say I these things as a man? or saith not the law the same also? 9 For it is written in the law of Moses, thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen? 10 Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope; and that he that thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hope. 11 If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things? 12 If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless we have not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should hinder the gospel of Christ. 13 Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar? 14 Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.

John Owen answers the primary objections tithe advocates use from the tithe of Abraham and Jacob in his commentary on Hebrews 7:

2. If the strict legal course of tithing be intended, it cannot be proved from this text [Gen. 14], nor from any other instance before the law; for Abraham gave only the tenth of the spoils [Heb. 7:4], which were not tithable by law. For if the places taken or destroyed in war were anathematized, as Jericho was, and also Amalek, no portion was to be reserved, under a pretense of sacrifice or any other sacred use; as Saul found to his cost. And if they were not anathematized, all the spoils were left entirely unto the people that went to war, without any sacred decimation. So the Reubenites and the Gadites, at their return over Jordan into their own land, carried all their rich spoils and cattle with them, no tithe being mentioned, Joshua 22:8; — although there is no question but many of them offered their freewill offerings at the tabernacle. And when God would have a sacred portion out of the spoils, as he would have in the wilderness, out of those that were taken from the Midianites, to manifest that they fell not under the law of tithes, he took not the tenth part, but one portion of five hundred from the soldiers, and one of fifty from the people, Numbers 31:28-30. Wherefore the giving of the tenth of the spoils was not from the obligation of any law, but was an act of free-will and choice in the offerer. But yet there was so great an equity herein also, — namely, that God should have an acknowledgment in the fruits of those successes which he gave in war, — that out of the spoils of his and his people’s enemies David made his provision for the building of the temple. And the captains of the host that went against Midian, after a tribute was raised for the Lord out of the spoils according unto the proportions mentioned, when they found the goodness of God in the preservation of their soldiers, whereof there was not one lost, they made a new voluntary oblation unto God out of their spoils, Numbers 31:48-50. And as for the instance of Jacob, who vowed unto God the tenth of all [Gen. 28:20-22], it is so far from proving that the tenth was due by virtue of any law, that it proves the contrary. For had it been so, it could not have been the matter of an extraordinary vow, whereby he could express his obedience unto God…[It is never repeated. It was a freewill offering]